Can you imagine that the, seemingly innocent and quite natural, idea to build more roads in order to solve the traffic problem can be sometimes quite a bad idea.
Congested road networks are a big problem in many countries. Building more roads is not always the best solution to solve this issue. One of the reasons for this is that drivers behave selfishly
Large international companies often do not send their profits directly from one country to another. Instead, they send it via other countries, so-called conduit countries, to reduce the tax they pay. Which countries are the most important conduit countries?
One way to mitigate the consequences of drivers' selfish behavior, is by introducing tolls (or taxes) on certain parts of the road network. This is also known as road pricing.
In network congestion models, we make some simplifying assumptions that make our life easier. In a large-scale system, each individual driver contributes a tiny amount to congestion, if we assume that every car controls the same amount of traffic.
Traffic jams are one of the biggest inconveniences in modern time. They lead to stressful situations for commuters, and cause huge economical and environmental damage. How could mathematics help?